IV SECÇÃO- Caminheiros - Manual de Apoio à formação - Escuteiros - v1.0.pdf

September 13, 2018 | Author: Agrupamento 376 - Uíge | Category: Natural Environment, Learning, Youth, Economics, Catholic Church
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MANUAL DO DIRIGENTE DA IVª SECÇÃO - CAMINHEIROS MANUAL OFICIAL DA AEA - Associação de Escuteiros de Angola Aqui podes ...

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[email protected]^ \ZFEZHGH @MPNH]DQF  -

[email protected]ÅÎF MH HNÅÎF \@MHEÞEDNH -

GHOPHD^

Z . H . \.

D Q                         ^                 @                 N                      Å                Π                  F              

Q               `           rs              î             f          

GHOPHI MF [email protected]]@ [email protected] ]@

8             . 

 F [email protected] MF^ 8; HF^ :0 HOF^  H phrtdr mfs 8; hofs, hprfxdghmhg`ot`, fs ahntfr`s sfndhds, `nfoþgdnfs ` p`rsfohidmhm` sîf fs qu` dou`ondhg ghds mdr`nthg`ot` f m`s`ovfivdg`otf mf  bfv`g. Hssdg, fs s`us dot`r`ss`s, p`rsp`ntdvhs, dm`dhs ` vhifr`s m`p`om`g jhsthot` mfs s`us erupfs m` r`a`râondh ` mf ahntf m` h suh vdmh s` m`s`orfihr `g ndmhm`s fu `g g`dfs rurhds. @sth ahdxh `tèrdh nfot`gpih `stumhot`s mf @osdof ^up`rdfr ` bfv`os qu` `stîf bè h `otrhr of g`rnhmf m` trhjhikf. Fs prdg`drfs `stîf ghds prft`edmfs ` vdv`g ugh ahish dom`p`omâondh, pfds, hp`shr m` vdv`r`g sfzdokfs, hdomh sîf sust`othmfs ` jhsthot` hpfdhmfs p`ifs phds. ^îf, e`rhig`ot`, ghds domdvdmuhidsths ` m` `spçrdtf hj`rtf, prfotfs phrh h gumhoåh. Hf doväs, fs s`euomfs sîf, oh suh ghdfrdh, ghds ghmurfs oh gho`drh ` p`oshr ` hedr ` `stîf ghds pr`sfs h nfgprfgdssfs. Of `othotf, hp`shr mhs mda`r`oåhs, gudths nfdshs fs uo`g.  H vdmh hmuith ä ug p`rçfmf ifoef m` m`s`ovfivdg`otf, phsshomf f hmuitf pfr `xp`rdâondhs gòitdpihs, nfgpi`xhs ` vhrdhmhs. H `otrhmh o`sth ahs` ä s`gpr` ug p`rçfmf m` nr`sndg`otf, `snfikhs, hoeòstdhs, hosd`mhm`s, hi`erdhs ` nfgprfgdssfs. Ä dgpfrthot` qu` fs Nk`a`s m` Niî ` @qudphs m` Hodghåîf t`okhg pr`s`ot`s qu`, hp`shr m` t`r`g ì suh ar`ot` bfv`os hmuitfs, `st`s hdomh hefrh `stîf h hpr`om`r h vdv`r ` nhgdokhr p`ihs suhs prþprdhs p`rohs. ^îf bfv`os qu` nfothg nfg f hpfdf ` supfrt` mf drgîf ghds v`ikf ` qu` gudths v`z`s s` `onfotrhg p`rmdmfs p`rhot` f hmgdrèv`i guomf ofvf qu` s` hjr` ì suh ar`ot`.

8>

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J \[email protected]]F @MPNH]DQF [email protected] F @^NP]D^GF [email protected]@[email protected] :8

[email protected]! Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs DQ ^@NÅÎF

[email protected]^

\HZ]DMH

A8 \rhtdnhr hntdvdmhm` açsdnh qu` prfgfvh f m`s`ovfivdg`otf ` ghout`oåîf mh hedidmhm`, `xdjd idmhm` ` m`str`zh m` afrgh hm`quhmh ì suh dmhm`, nhphndmhm` ` idgdthåð`s. A: Nfok`n`r ` hn`dthr f m`s`ovfivdg`ot m`s`ovfivdg`otf f ` hghmur`ndg`otf mf s`u nfrpf nfg ohturhidmhm`. A> Nfok`n`r hs nhrhnt`rçstdnhs sdfiþednhs mf nfrpf ghsnuidof ` a`gdodof ` h suh r`ihåîf nfg f nfgpfrthg`otf ` o`n`ssdmhm`s domdvdmuhds. A= Nuitdvhr ug `stdif m` vdmh shumèv`i ` `qudidjrhmf - hidg`othåîf, hntdvdmhm` hntdvdmhm` açsdnh ` r`pfusf -, hmhpthmf h nhmh ahs` mf s`u m`s`ovfivdg`ot m`s`ovfivdg`otf. f. A0 Nudmhr ` vhifrdzhr f s`u nfrpf m` hnfrmf nfg fs phmrð`s m` shòm`, r`v`ihomf hprugf. A1 Dm`otdnhr ` `vdthr, oh vdmh quftdmdhoh, fs nfgpfrthg`otfs m` rdsnf r`ihndfohmfs nfg h s`eu s`eu-rhoåh açsdnh ` nfosugf m` sujstêondhs.

8ª @thph

H8 Qhifrdzhr ` m`gfostrhr s`osdjdidmhm` ohs suhs r`ihåð`s ha`ntdvhs, m` gfmf nfos`qu`ot` nfg h

[email protected]

H: Z`sp`dthr h `xdstâondh m` vèrdhs s`osdjdidmhm`s `stätdnhs ` hrtçstdnhs, afrghomf h suh fpd odîf nfg

8ª @thph

[email protected] :ª @thph

^@ZQDÅF >ª @thph

fpåîf m` vdmh hssugdmh. s`otdmf nrçtdnf.

H> Hssugdr h prþprdh s`xuhidmhm` hn`dthomf h nfgpi`g`othrdmhm` Kfg`g/ Guik`r ` vdvâ-ih nfgf `x-

:ª @thph

pr`ssîf r`spfosèv`i m` hgfr.

^@ZQDÅF

H= ^`r nhphz m` dm`otdnhr, nfgpr``om`r ` `xpr`sshr hs suhs `gfåð`s, t`omf `g nfoth f nfot`xtf ` fs s`otdg`otfs mfs futrfs.

H0  Z`nfok`n`r ` hn`dthr hs nhrhnt`rçstdnhs mh suh p`rsfohidmhm`, ghot`omf ugh htdtum` m` hp`r-

>ª @thph

a`dåfhg`otf nfosthot`.

\HZ]DMH

H1 Qhifrdzhr hs prþprdhs nhphndmhm`s, sup`rhomf idgdthåð`s ` hmfpthomf ugh htdtum` pfsdtdvh p`rhot`

8ª @thph

N8 \fssudr ` m`s`ovfiv`r ug quhmrf m` vhifr`s qu` sîf arutf m` ugh fpåîf nfosnd`ot`. N: ^`r nhphz m` afrguihr ` nfostrudr hs suhs prþprdhs fpåð`s, hssugdomf-hs nfg nihr`zh. N> Gfstrhr-s` r`spfosèv`i p`if s`u m`s`ovfivdg`otf, nfifnhomf h sd prþprdf fjb`ntdvfs m` prfer`ssîf p`ssfhi. N= M`gfostrhr `gp`okf ` vfothm` m` hedr, hssugdomf hs suhs r`spfoshjdidmhm`s `g tfmfs fs prfb`ntfs qu` `on`th, `sthj`i`n`omf prdfrdmhm`s ` r`sp`dthomf-hs. N0 M`gfostrhr p`rs`v`rhoåh ofs gfg`otfs m` mdnuimhm`, prfnurhomf uitrhphssè-ifs nfg fpfp tdgdsgf. N1 ^`r nfos`qu`ot` nfg hs fpåð`s qu` tfgh, hssugdomf h r`spfoshjdidmhm` p`ifs s`us hntfs. N5 ^`r nfosdst`ot` ` nfovdntf oh m`a`sh mhs suhs dm`dhs ` vhifr`s. N; Mhr t`st`guokf, hedomf `g nf`râondh nfg f s`u sdst`gh m` vhifr`s.

h vdmh.

[email protected] :ª @thph

^@ZQDÅF >ª @thph

\HZ]DMH 8ª @thph

[email protected] :ª @thph

^@ZQDÅF >ª @thph

\HZ]DMH 8ª @thph

[email protected] :ª @thph

^@ZQDÅF >ª @thph

\HZ]DMH 8ª @thph

[email protected] :ª @thph

^@ZQDÅF >ª @thph

\HZ]DMH

::

@8 Nfok`n`r ` nfgpr``om`r f gfmf nfgf M`us s` m`u h nfok`n`r ì kughodmhm`, prfpfomf-ik` ug \rfb`ntf m` A`idndmhm` \i`oh (Kdstþrdh mh ^hivhåîf). @: Nfok`n`r `g prfauomdmhm` h g`oshe`g ` h prfpfsth m` B`sus Nrdstf (Gdstärdf mh @onhrohåîf ` Gdstärdf \hsnhi). @> Z`nfok`n`r qu` h p`rt`oåh ì Der`bh/Z`idedîf ä ug sdohi m` M`us of guomf m` kfb`. @= Hprfauomhr fs kèjdtfs m` frhåîf p`ssfhi ` hssugdr-s` nfgf g`gjrf hntdvf mh Der`bh oh n`i`jrhåîf nfguodtèrdh. @0 Dot`erhr oh suh vdmh fs vhifr`s mf @vhoe`ikf, vdv`omf hs prfpfsths mh Der`bh/Z`idedîf. @1 Nfok`n`r hs prdondphds r`idedð`s mdstdoeudomf ` vhifrdzhomf h dm`otdmhm` mh tuh nfossîf r`idedfsh. @5 ]`st`guokhr ]`st`guokhr qu` h pr`s`oåh m` M`us of guomf mdeodnh h vdmh kughoh ` h Ohtur`zh. @; Qdv`r f nfgprfgdssf nfg M`us nfgf gdssîf of guomf `g tfmhs ä mdg`osð`s (kughohs, sfndhds, `nfoþgdnhs, nuiturhds ` pfiçtdnhs).

D8 \rfnurhr m` afrgh hntdvh ` nfotdouhmh ofvfs shj`r`s ` vdvâondhs, nfgf afrgh m` nfotrdjudr phrh f s`u nr`sndg`otf p`ssfhi. D: Nfok`n`r ` utdidzhr afrghs hm`quhmhs m` r`nfikh ` trhthg`otf m` doafrghåîf `, m`otrf m`sshs, mdstdoeudr f `ss`ondhi mf hn`ssþrdf. D> M`odr f s`u dtdo`rèrdf m` afrghåîf pr`fnuphomf-s` `g ghotâif hntuhidzhmf. D= Hmhpthr-s` ` sup`rhr ofvhs sdtuhåð`s, hvhidhomf-hs ì iuz m` `xp`rdâondhs hot`rdfr`s ` nfok`ndg`otfs hmqudrdmfs. D0 Hohidshr fs prfji`ghs m` afrgh nrçtdnh, sue`rdomf ` hpidnhomf `strhtäedhs m` r`sfiuåîf mfs g`sgfs. D1 ^`r nhphz m` utdidzhr nfok`ndg`otfs, p`rn`påð`s ` dotudåð`s oh nrdhåîf m` ofvhs dm`dhs ` fjrhs, ghot`omf ug `spçrdtf hj`rtf ` dofvhmfr. D5 @xpr`sshr dm`dhs ` `gfåð`s m` afrgh iþednh ` nrdhtdvh, hmhpthmh hf(s) m`stdohtèrdf(s) ` utdidzhomf fs g`dfs hm`quhmfs. ^8 Nfok`n`r ` `x`rn`r fs s`us mdr`dtfs ` m`v`r`s `oquhotf ndmhmîf. ^: \hrtdndphr hntdvh ` nfosnd`ot`g`ot` ofs vèrdfs `sphåfs sfndhds fom` s` dos`r`, dot`rvdomf m` ugh afrgh doafrghmh, r`sp`dthmfrh ` nfostrutdvh. ^> Z`sp`dthr hs r`erhs m`gfnrètdnhs ` hssugdr nfgf suhs hs m`ndsð`s tfghmhs nfi`ntdvhg`ot`. ^= Hssugdr qu` ä phrt` mh sfnd`mhm` fom` s` dos`r`, hedomf ough p`rsp`ntdvh m` s`rvdåf idj`rthmfr ` m` nfostruåîf m` auturf. ^0 Pshr m` `gphtdh oh afrgh m` nfguodnhr nfg fs futrfs, m`gfostrhomf tfi`rêondh ` r`sp`dtf p`rhot` futrfs pfotfs m` vdsth. ^1 Gfstrhr nhphndmhm` m` r`ihndfohg`otf ` trhjhikf `g `qudph, nfotrdjudomf hntdvhg`ot` phrh f sun`ssf mf nfi`ntdvf htrhväs mf m`s`gp`okf nfg nfgp`tâondh mf s`u php`i. ^5 Hssugdr phpäds m` idm`rhoåh, m` afrgh `qudidjrhmh, t`omf `g nfoth hs suhs o`n`ssdmhm`s ` hs mf erupf.

 Hssfndhåîf m` @snut`drfs @snut`drfs m` Hoefih ([email protected])

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M`s`ovfivdg`otf AÇ^DNF Mdg`osîf mh p`rsfohidmhm`2 f nfrpf

[email protected]]DQF^ @MPNH]DQF^ ADOHD^ A8.  \rhtdnhr hntdvdmhm` açsdnh qu` prfgfvh f m`s`ovfivdg`otf ` ghout`oåîf mh hedidmhm`, `xdjdid mhm` ` m`str`zh m` afrgh hm`quhmh ì suh dmhm`, nhphndmhm` ` idgdthåð`s. A:. Nfok`n`r ` hn`dthr f m`s`ovfivdg`otf ` hghmur`ndg`otf mf s`u nfrpf nfg ohturhidmhm` A>. Nfok`n`r hs nhrhnt`rçstdnhs sdfiþednhs mf nfrpf ghs nuidof ` a`gdodof ` h suh r`ihåîf nfg f nfgpfrthg`otf ` o`n`ssdmhm`s domdvdmuhds. A=. Nuitdvhr ug `stdif m` vdmh shumèv`i ` `qudidjrhmf„ hidg`othåîf, hntdvdmhm` açsdnh ` r`pfusf „, hmhpthmf h nhmh ahs` mf s`u m`s`ovfivdg`otf. A0. Nudmhr ` vhifrdzhr f s`u nfrpf m` hnfrmf nfg fs phmrð`s m` shòm`, r`v`ihomf hprugf. `vdthr,, oh vdmh quftdmdhoh, quftdmdhoh, fs nfgpfr A1. Dm`otdnhr ` `vdthr thg`otfs m` rdsnf r`ihndfohmfs nfg h s`eurhoåh açsdnh ` nfosugf m` sujstêondhs.

:1

M`s`ovfivdg`otf [email protected]]DQF Mdg`osîf mh p`rsfohidmhm`2

fs s`otdg`otfs ` hs `gfåð`s

[email protected]]DQF^ @MPNH]DQF^ ADOHD^ H8.  Qhifrdzhr ` m`gfostrhr s`osdjdidmhm` ohs suhs r`ihåð`s ha`ntdvhs, m` gfmf nfos`qu`ot` nfg h fpåîf m` vdmh hssugdmh. H:. Z`sp`dthr h `xdstâondh m` vèrdhs s`osdjdidmhm`s `stätdnhs ` hrtçstdnhs, afrghomf h suh fpdodîf nfg s`otdmf nrçtdnf.  Hssugdr dr h prþprdh s`xuhidmhm` hn`dthomf h nfgpi`H>. Hssug g`othrdmhm` Kfg`g/Guik`r ` vdvâ-ih nfgf `xpr`ssîf r`spfosèv`i m` hgfr.

H=. ^`r nhphz m` dm`otdnhr, nfgpr``om`r ` `xpr`sshr hs suhs `gfåð`s, t`omf `g nfoth f nfot`xtf ` fs s`otdg`otfs mfs futrfs. H0. Z`nfok`n`r ` hn`dthr hs nhrhnt`rçstdnhs mh suh p`rsfohidmhm`, ghot`omf ugh htdtum` m` hp`ra`dåfhg`otf nfosthot`. H1. Qhifrdzhr hs prþprdhs nhphndmhm`s, sup`rhomf idgdthåð`s ` hmfpthomf ugh htdtum` pfsdtdvh p`rhot` h vdmh.

:5

I`d ` \rfg`ssh

>:

Gçstdnh ` ^dgjfifedh

Qdmh oh Ohtur`zh

 Hpr`om`r Ahz`omf

^dst`gh m` \htruikhs

^dst`gh m` \rfer`ssf \`ssfhi

Z`ihåîf @munhtdvh

^dst`gh m` \htruikhs ^dst`gh m` \rfer`ssf

Z`ihåîf @munhtdvh I`d ` \rfg`ssh Qdmh oh Ohtur`zh

Hpr`om`r

Ahz`omf Gçstdnh ` ^dgjfifedh

>=

N.8.: H I`d ` \rfg`ssh of Erupf Bòodfr Bòodfr,, Erupf ^äodfr ` Niî

D. H [email protected] \hrh f @snut`drf mh [email protected], h I`d `oeifjh fs 8< Hrtdefs, `ouondhmfs pfr J.-\., ` fs > \rdonçpdfs mh [email protected] Fs prdonçpdfs (mh [email protected])

8² F @snuth freuikh-s` mh suh aä ` pfr `ih frd`oth tfmh h suh vdmh3 :² F @snuth ä ikf m` Hoefih ` jfg ndmhmîf3 >² F m`v`r mf @snuth nfg`åh `g nhsh.

H I`d 8² H kforh mf @snuth dospdrh nfohoåh3 :² F @snuth ä I`hi3 >² F @snuth ä òtdi ` prhtdnh mdhrdhg`ot` ugh jfh hnåîf3 =² F @snuth ä hgdef m` tfmfs ` drgîf m` tfmfs fs futrfs `snuths3 0² F @snuth ä m`idnhmf ` r`sp`dthmfr3 1² F @snuth prft`e` hs pihoths ` fs hodghds3 5² F @snuth ä fj`md`ot`3 ;² F @snuth t`g s`gpr` jfh mdspfsdåîf m` `spçrdtf3 4² F @snuth ä sþjrdf, `nfoþgdnf ` r`sp`dthmfr mf j`g hik`df3 8 H vdvâondh of Niî D. Qdv`r h I`d ` h \rfg`ssh \rfg`ssh  H \rfg`ssh ` h I`d @snutdsth sîf `xde`ot`s. Ghs ä m`v`r mf @snut`drf ’ahz`r tfmf f pfssçv`i‗ phrh hs nugprdr. Oîf hp`ohs quhomf mè  b`dtf, quhomf ä aèndi, fu quhomf s` `stè m` I`oåf hf p`snfåf… ghs s`gpr`! Murhot` f s`u p`rnursf of @snutdsgf, f bfv`g ä gudths v`z`s sfidndthmf phrh shj`r h I`d, phrh nugprdr h I`d, `tn. Xuhomf nk`eh ì DQ ^`nåîf `ssh dosdstâondh oh I`d gudths v`z`s m`shphr`n`. Dstf hnfot`n` pfrqu`  bè sîf sîf ghds ghds v`ikfs ` p`osh-s` qu` qu` bè h m`v`g m`v`g shj`r m` ’nfr ` shit`hmf‗, pfrqu` s` hnkh qu` bè oîf ä o`n`ssèrdf homhr s`gpr` h r`i`gjrhr h I`d hfs Nhgdok`drfs, fu pfr quhiqu`r futrf gftdvf… Nfotumf, h v`rmhm` ä qu` thgjäg f Nhgdok`drf mdz oh suh \rfg`ssh qu` vhd fj`m`n`r ì I`d mf @snuth. Ä nfov`od`ot`, `otîf, qu` s`bh r`i`gjrhmf m` vèrdhs afrghs mf qu` prfg`t`u ` qu` nfosdeh p`rn`j`r nhmh hrtdef mh i`d ì iuz mh suh dmhm`, ghturdmhm` ` vdmh, m`otrf ` afrh mf @snutdsgf. Oîf ä m`sprfpfsdthmf qu` h I`d mf @snuth `st`bh hxhmh oh Jhs` (fu ^`m`). Of `othotf, s` nhikhr, f pfst`r nfg fs m`z hrtdefs mh I`d hf g m` hieug t`gpf tfroh-s` kèjdtf ` m`dxh-s` m` r`phrhr o`i`. \frqu` oîf ahz`r ugh nfdsh ghds mdoêgdnh6

@x 8 - \rfpfsth phrh h Hvhidhåîf Hvhidhåîf mh Nhgdokhmh Ahz`r f `x`rnçndf m` r``ntdr fom` `st`v` pr`s`ot` nhmh hrtdef mh I`d oh Nhgdokhmh r`hidzhmh. ^` tfmfs fs hrtdefs `stdv`r`g pr`s`ot`s, f Niî `stè m` phrhjäos. ^` oîf, kè s`gpr` kdpþt`s`s m` g`ikfrhr oh Nhgdokhmh s`eudot`.

@x : „ \rfpfsth phrh h Jhs` (fu ^`m`) Hxhr h I`d oh Jhs` (fu ^`m`) `, pfr jhdxf m` nhmh hrtdef, `snr`v`r f qu` f Niî ahz phrh f nugprdr. @x2 '’F @snuth ä m`idnhmf ` r`sp`dthmfr‗, pfr dssf f ofssf Niî pr`fnuph-s` `g nfok`n`r tfmfs fs `i`g`otfs mf Heruphg`otf, trhtè-ifs nfg mdeodmhm` ` hbumè-ifs ohs suhs mdnuimhm`s.' (`sth mdoêgdnh thgjäg pfm` s`r domdvdmuhi).

@x > „ Nhrth m` Niî \`ehomf ug pfunf of `x`gpif hot`rdfr, fu ahz`omf m` ugh futrh afrgh quhiqu`r, prfnurhr t`r pr`s`ot` h I`d mf @snuth quhomf s` `ihjfrh h Nhrth m` Niî.

0;

FZHÅÎF MF [email protected] ^`okfr B`sus, Xu` Qfs hpr`s`othst`s hfs kfg`os

nfgf ug nhgdokf vdvf, drrhmdhomf nihrdmhm` qu` v`g mf hitf2 Mdeohd-Qfs Mdeohd-Q fs s`r  f g`u Eudh ` Nfgphok`drf

ofs nhgdokfs mh vdmh, nfgf ug mdh f Afst`s of nhgdokf m` @ghòs3 Diugdohd-g` nfg f Qfssf @spçrdtf, h g m` shj`r m`snfjrdr 

f nhgdokf mf Qfssf g`ikfr s`rvdåf3 @ qu`, hidg`othmf-ofs nfg f Q`rmhm`drf \îf m` tfmfs fs Nhgdok`drfs, hp`shr mhs ahmdehs

 ` mhs nfotrhmdåð`s mh bfrohmh `u pfssh nhgdokhr hi`er`g`ot` nfovfsnf

`g mdr`nåîf hf \hd ` hfs drgîfs. Èg`o.

1:

N.:.= Gçstdnh ` ^dgjfifedh of Niî (DQ ^`nåîf) D. Gçstdnh mfs Nhgdok`drfs ` Nfgphok`drfs2 «H vdmh

of Kfg`g Ofvf³.  H nfostruåîf mh Der`bh (`g nhmh Nr`mf), sdohi mh ghturdmhm` mh aä, prfb`nth f Kfg`g phrh f guomf. F nrdstîf, nkhghmf h s`r «shi mh t`rrh³, «iuz mf guomf³ ` «a`rg`otf oh ghssh³, hssug` f s`u iuehr hntdvf oh nfostruåîf mfs «ofvfs näus ` mh ofvh t`rrh³. F Z`dof m` M`us, nubh i`d `stè sdot`tdzhmh ohs J`g-Hv`oturhoåhs, ä h vdmh `g Nrdstf, f Kfg`g Ofvf2 `ssh ä h g`th h hinhoåhr p`if Nhgdok`drf. O`st` s`otdmf, f Nhgdok`drf ä nkhghmf h hssugdr dot`erhig`ot` f dm`hi mf Kfg`g Ofvf. ^hj` qu` h ofvdmhm` oîf nfosdst` oh Hm`sîf Hm`sîf p`rgho`ot` ìs òitdghs gfmhs, ghs sdg oh m`snfj`rth, hprfauomhg`otf ` hssuoåîf mfs vhifr`s e`ouçofs qu` `stîf idehmfs ì prþprdh ohtur`zh mf Kfg`g ` qu`, pfr dssf g`sgf, f ahrîf s`r ghds a`idz.  Hssdg, oîf jusnh ugh a`idndmhm` idehmh h nfdshs `aäg`rhs (mdok`drf, ahgh, prhz`r, vdndf, …), ghs h v`rmhm`drh A`idndmhm`, hqu`ih qu` t`g nfgf r`a`râondh h ofvdmhm` rhmdnhi mhs J`g-Hv`oturhoåhs. Oug t`gpf nfgf f qu` s` vdv`, m` `xtrhfrmdoèrdfs hvhoåfs `g tfmfs fs nhgpfs ` `g qu` f \rfer`ssf phr`n` oîf t`r idgdt`, ä nhmh v`z ghds o`n`ssèrdf g`reuikhr of dot`rdfr m` sd g`sgf phrh `onfotrhr hief v`rmhm`drhg`ot` dofvhmfr2 h vfothm` m` hghr, f efstf m` ahz`r, h o`n`ssdmhm` m` phrtdikhr, f m`s`bf m` vdv`r, f prhz`r m` ^`rvdr, h shtdsahåîf m` s`otdr, h `gfåîf m` nrdhr . O`st` s`otdmf, h

prfpfsth qu` ä a`dth hfs Nhgdok`drfs oîf ä g`rhg`ot` rfgêotdnh. Ä ugh prfpfsth nfonr`th m`stdohmh h s`r vdvdmh tfmfs fs mdhs oh suh `snfih, of s`u trhjhikf, nfg fs s`us hgdefs, nfg h suh ahgçidh, `tn. M`otrf mf s`u guomf `sthrîf hssdg, h s`r, hrt`sîfs m` ug guomf ofvf. M` afrgh h pft`ondhr h m`snfj`rth mh v`rmhm`drh a`idndmhm`, f Nhgdok`drf ä nfovdmhmf h t`r nfgf `x`gpif \huif m` ]hrsf, f `snfikdmf phrh f hoòondf mh Jfh Ofvh hfs e`otdfs. M` ahntf, \huif m` ]hrsf ä çnfo` mh uodv`rshidmhm` mh ^hivhåîf2 h shivhåîf qu` Nrdstf houondh, ` dohueurh, t`g nfgf m`stdohtèrdfs fs kfg`os ` guik`r`s m` tfmfs fs t`gpfs, iuehr`s ` nuiturhs.

5>

^DGJFIFEDH mfs Nhgdok`drfs Hs mdg`osð`s M` afrgh h r`afråhr h Gçstdnh mh ^`nåîf, f dtdo`rèrdf mf Nhgdok`drf vdv`-s` `g tfrof m` quhtrf mdg`osð`s qu` hmqudr`g ug vhifr sdgjþidnf2 Nhgdokf, Nfguodmhm`, ^`rvdåf ` \hrtdmh. Ä ug dtdo`rèrdf m` \rfer`ssf \`ssfhi, m` tfghmh m` nfosndâondh mhs pfssdjdidmhm`s m` `vfiuåîf, m` p`oshg`otf, qu` s` ik`s fa`r`n` oh vdmh `g Niî ` oh vdmh m` nhmh mdh. Of ohi m`st` dtdo`rèrdf, f Nhgdok`drf `stè h arho qu`hr hs pfrths mh vdmh hmuith, idvr` ` r`spfosèv`i, pr`st`s h tfghr h vdmh ohs suhs gîfs. @st` dtdo`rèrdf t`g hssdg quhtrf v`rt`ot`s2 ä domdvdmuhi, ghs thgjäg nfguodtèrdf, `stè vdrhmf phrh f s`rvdåf hfs futrfs ` phrh f m`shf mf m`snfok`ndmf. @sshs quhtrf v`rt`ot`s `stîf pr`s`ot`s ohs quhtrf mdg`osð`s `g qu` f Nhgdok`drf vhd nr`sn`omf2 F p`rnursf domdvdmuhi „ f Nhgdokf

dtdo`rèrd f u Ofs Nhgdok`drfs, f bfv`g ä m`shhmf h `snfik`r ug dtdo`rèrdf m` m`snfj`rth ` m` hnåîf qu` f i`v` h tfrohr-s` nfostrutfr m` ug Guomf Ofvf. F Nhgdokf sdeodnh, `otîf, h hj`rturh, h ihr ihr eu`zh m` vdsths, f hp`if mf kfrdzfot`, h nhphndmhm` m` hn`dthr h gumhoåh, m` vdv`r oh prþprdh gumhoåh. Ä, thgjäg, ug `sphåf m` vdmh m`spfbhmh, m` r`b`dåîf mf supäruf, m` ht`oåîf hf `ss`ondhi. `ss`o ndhi. \fr g, ä ug iuehr m` p`rs`v`rhoåh, m` `xp`rdâondh m` ugh i`oth ` phnd`ot` nfostruåîf m` sd g`sgf, m` hpr`omdzhe`g mh nhphndmhm` m` s` nfgprfg`t`r phrh hiäg mf dg`mdhtf. Erhåhs h dstf, `st` Nhgdokf mfs Nhgdok`drfs ä, thi nfgf f mfs \`r`erdofs, t`st`guokf m` vdmh nrdstî. ^`r Nhgdok`drf ä s`r ghds (sup`rhr-s` h sd g`sgf)… Ä s`r \`r`erdof2 \`r` erdof2 of Nhgdokf m` @ghòs, Nrdstf Z`ssusndthmf r`v`ifu-s` hfs s`us mdsnçpuifs, nhgdokhomf nfg `i`s ihmf i hmf h ihmf…

u

54

Pg p`rnursf phrh h vdmh2 h \hrtdmh uF

Nhgdok`drf t`g m` hvhoåhr prfer`ssdvhg`ot` phrh h suh \hrtdmh, qu` `xprdg` sdgjfidnhg`ot` qu` f hntf m` nhgdokhr ä ghds dgpfrthot` mf qu` f hntf m` nk`ehr. Ä pfr dssf qu`, of ohi mf s`u t`gpf m` Nhgdok`drf, quhomf shd mf Niî, f bfv`g oîf nk`eh hf g mf s`u nhgdokf, ghs phrt` phrh ug ofvf nhgdokf. M` ahntf, f g m` ugh @thph sdeodnh s`gpr` f doçndf m` futrh ` h \hrtdmh ä f gfg`otf m` f Nhgdok`drf s` ihoåhr of nhgdokf mh vdmh ` ä thgjäg ug ‛@ovdf— (sþ pfm` khv`r \hrtdmh s` kfuv`r qu`g `ovd`).

u^`r Nhgdok`drf ä hghr… Ä s`r @ovdhmf2 of nhgdokf m` @ghòs,

Nrdstf, ’phrtdu‗... @ `i`s r`nfok`n`rhg-o—F vdvf ` r`ssusndthmf.

Fs sçgjfifs @sths quhtrf mdg`osð`s qu` f Nhgdok`drf vdv` oh suh phsshe`g p`if Niî, nfg vdsth h pr`phrhr-s` phrh h suh vdmh hmuith, sîf nfifrdmhs pfr ug n`rtf oòg`rf m` sdohds nfg ugh `i`vhmh nhreh sdgjþidnh2 Qhrh jdaurnhmh, Gfnkdih, \îf, @vhoe`ikf, ]`omh ]`omh ` Afef.

;8

 Hofthåð`s p`ssfhds2  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV   VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  VVVVVV 

;4

N.>.= H Qdmh oh Ohtur`zh of Niî  H vdmh hf hr idvr` ä ugh mhs v`rt`ot`s qu` ghds dm`otdnh f @snutdsgf ` h vdvâondh oh DQ ^`nåîf oîf `snhph h `sth nhrhnt`rçstdnh. Hidès, J.-\. J.-\. mdss`-ofs qu` fs Nhgdok`drfs `rhg h arht`rodmhm` mf Hr Idvr` ` mf ^`rvdåf. M` ahntf, phrh f auomhmfr, f nfothntf nfg h Ohtur`zh tdokh qu` ahz`r phrt` mh afrghåîf m` bfv`os shumèv`ds ` a`idz`s. @, oh v`rmhm`, tfmfs fs Nhgdok`drfs qu` `xp`rdg`othg `st` nfothntf, m`s`ovfiv`omf hs suhs hntdvdmhm`s oh Ohtur`zh, shj`g f quhotf ä `sp`ndhi `sth vdvâondh2 `ih aè-ifs s`otdr p`qu`ofs p`rhot` h fjrh m` M`us, ghs edehot`s pfr ahz`r`g phrt` m`sth ghrhvdikh `g qu` ohmh afd m`dxhmf hf hnhsf.

H Ohtur`zh nfgf ug ihjfrhtþrdf2 h nfosndâondh hgjd`othi Of nfot`xtf hntuhi mh Kughodmhm`, hs pr`fnuphåð`s hgjd`othds sîf ugh nfosthot` mf mdh-h-mdh. M` ahntf, h nfosndâondh hgjd`othi mfs  bfv`os t`g hug`othmf hf ifoef mfs hofs ` kfb` t`gfs, s`g mòvdmh, p`ssfhs gudtf ghds ht`oths hf qu` s` phssh `g s`u r`mfr ` qu` `stîf nfosnd`ot`s m` qu` vdv`gfs oug piho`th arèedi ` m`idnhmf nubfs r`nursfs ohturhds sîf odtfs. O`st` êgjdtf, oîf ä hp`ohs auomhg`othi qu` tfmfs, s`g `xn`påîf, `st`bhg hi`rth phrh `sth r`hidmhm`2 ä deuhig`ot` dgpfrthot` qu` s` mdspfokhg h ahz`r h suh phrt` phrh m`dxhr f guomf ug pfunf g`ikfr mf qu` f `onfotrhrhg. Hssdg, oîf s` `sp`rh qu` fs Nhgdok`drfs t`okhg hp`ohs ugh htdtum` m` r`sp`dtf phrh nfg h Fjrh mh Nrdhåîf. Fjs`rvhomf h I`d „ ofg`hmhg`ot` f hrtdef ’F @snuth prft`e` hs pihoths ` fs hodghds‗ „, `sp`rh-s` qu` ghoda`st`g h htdtum` prfhntdvh m` t`othr p`rn`j`r fs `nfssdst`ghs, m` prfnurhr shj`r f qu` ahz`r, m` hbumhr h `munhr hs e`rhåð`s ghds ofvhs ` m` m`gfostrhr nfgpfrthg`otfs hm`quhmfs, m` gfmf h mdgdoudr h p`ehmh `nfiþednh m` nhmh ug. Oft`-s` qu` h @qudph m` Hodghåîf m`v` t`r nfosndâondh m` qu` ä `x`gpif, p`if qu` ä h `ih qu` nfgp`t`, `g prdg`drf iuehr, m`gfostrhr nfgpfrthg`otfs `qudidjrhmfs (nfgf dgpi`g`othr g`mdmhs m` r`muåîf m` `o`redh, m` vdediêondh h oçv`i mf dgphntf hgjd`othi, `tn.). M` ahntf, oîf jhsth gfstrhr ` prfgfv`r f qu` s` m`v` ahz`r2 ä pr`ndsf vdv`r dssf nfg fs Nhgdok`drfs.

41

pfunf nfot`òmf ` quhidmhm`, sîf nfoaushs ` prfvfnhg ahndig`ot` h m`sgftdvhåîf mfs `i`g`otfs. Ä dgpfrthot` dotrfmuzdr dofvhåð`s, `sp`ndhig`ot` ohs hntdvdmhm`s qu` t`om`g h s`eudr ug phmrîf oh suh afrgh m` r`hidzhåîf. Oîf pfm`gfs m`dxhr qu` h rftdoh s` dosthi` ` nfostdtuh ugh ’p`mrh oh `oer`ohe`g‗, bè qu`, s` dstf hnfot`n`r, hs hntd vdmhm`s pfm`g p`rm`r f s`u vhifr `munhtdvf ` f s`u dot`r`ss` pfr phrt` mfs ofssfs bfv`os @snut`drfs. \fr `sth rhzîf, ä o`n`ssèrdf, m` t`gpfs h t`gpfs, dr dotrfmuzdomf vhrdhåð`s, qu`stdfohrgf-ofs s` oîf pfm`r`gfs g`ikfrhr hs hntdvdmhm`s fu prfb`nthr ofvhs nfgpfo`ot`s qu` hs tfro`g ghds htrhntdvhs. Nhmh erupf t`g hs suhs hntdvdmhm`s `sp`nçnhs, qu` pfm`g vhrdhr m` ^`nåîf phrh ^`nåîf fu `g t`rgfs m` t`gpf, `sphåf fu erhu m` hutfofgdh ` m`s`ovfivdg`otf mfs `i`g`otfs. M` ahntf, ug Hnhgphg`otf m` Ifjdtfs oîf pfm` t`r fs g`sgfs t`gpfs m` ug Hnhgphg`otf m` @xpifrhmfr`s ^äodfr`s. Bè ug rhdm` m` Nhgdok`drfs, pfr `x`gpif, p`rgdt` ug erhu m` hutfofgdh ghdfr pfr phrt` mhs @qudphs mf qu` ug m` @xpifrhmfr`s Bòodfr`s. Ä dgpfrthot`, h `st` oçv`i, qu` h @qudph m` Hodghåîf t`okh nfosndâondh mhs nhrhnt`rçstdnhs mh ^`nåîf qu` idm`rh ` mhs `sp`ndndmhm`s mf erupf, phrh qu` tfmhs hs hntdvdmhm`s r`hidzhmhs r`h idzhmhs s`bhg hm`quhmhs ` nfotrdjuhg, m` ahntf, phrh f nr`sndg`otf m` nhmh `i`g`otf.

DDD. F GÄ]FMF MF \[email protected]]F @otr` hs hntdvdmhm`s tçpdnhs m` nhmh ^`nåîf, `onfotrhgfs ugh erhom` hntdvdmhm` qu`, p`ih o`n`ssdmhm` m` piho`hg`otf, frehodzhåîf ` vhifr `munhtdvf o`n`ssdth m` s`r `xpifrhmh nfg ghds m`thik`. Ahihgfs mf \rfb`ntf, nubh g`tfmfifedh ä hpidnhmh `g tfmhs hs ^`nåð`s.

8. \`mhefedh mf \rfb`ntf Xuhomf hieuäg, n`rtf mdh, t`rè p`reuothmf h J.-\. f qu` m`v`rdh ahz`r nfg fs rhphz`s, f v`ikf e`o`rhi t`rè r`spfomdmf2 ’\`reuoth-ik`s!‗ (’Hsc tk` jfy‗). @sth ä, htä kfb`, ugh arhs` dmdfgètdnh, dmdf gètdnh, ug gft`, ugh dospdrhåîf phrh f Mdrde`ot`, of trhjhikf qu` ik` nfgp`t` h oçv`i mf ’Hpr`om`r Ahz`omf‗.

8¼ (\hrtdmh)

8. H \hrtdmh  ä f hntf sfi`o` of quhi f Niî, ht`om`omf hf \rfer`ssf m`s`ovfivdmf p`if Nhgdok`drf, f m`nihrh `a`ntdvhg`ot` dodndhmf oh pi`oh vdmh m` kfg`g, nfgf ndmhmîf. :. H \hrtdmh ä prfpfsth p`if nk`a` m` Niî, nfg f phr`n`r ahvfrèv`i mf

8><

N.1.= F ^D^]@GH [email protected] \[email protected]^^F of Niî H `struturh mf ^dst`gh m` \rfer`ssf Ahs` m` Dot`erhåîf @thph Nhgdokf (Hm`sîf)

Ahs` m` Qdvâondh @thph Nfguodmhm`

@thph ^`rvdåf

@thph \hrtdmh

NFG\ZFGD^^F (\rfg`ssh) [email protected]^ÎF DOAFZGHI

NHGDOKF (Hm`sîf)

[email protected]

MDHEOÞ^]DNF DODNDHI

^@ZQDÅF

\HZ]DMH

[email protected]^HADF [email protected]ÞODH [email protected] \HZ]DMH

D. Dot`erhåîf h) H Hm`sîf

8. H [email protected]^ÎF DOAFZGHI hf Niî  H Hm`sîf Doafrghi prfnurh ahgdidhrdzhr f Ofvdåf nfg f Niî ` m`v`rè dodndhr-s` of òitdgf trdg`str` mh vdvâondh `snutdsth oh Nfguodmhm` mfs ^äodfr`s. Murhot` `st` p`rçfmf, f bfv`g nfotdouh h s`r @xpifrhmfr ^äodfr, h p`rt`on`r ` h vdv`r `g pi`of hs mdoêgdnhs mh DDD ^`nåîf. F qu` s` pr`t`om` ä ugh hprfxdghåîf suhv` hf Niî ` oîf ug hahsthg`otf mf Erupf ^äodfr m` fom` ahz phrt`.

8>0

@squ`gh [email protected]^PGF- ^`nåîf DQ

OÎF3 ä Hspdrhot` fu Ofvdåf

OÎF

Dmhm` ä  sup`rdfr h  8< hofs6

Mdheoþstdnf Dodndhi afrghi mf Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` nfg f hpfdf mf Nk`a` m` Niî ` m` ug Nhgdok`drf ghds `xp`rd`ot` pfr `i` `snfikdmf, nfg r`nursf h mdoêgdnhs `sp`nçnhs.

]rhosdåîf `otr` ^dst`ghs m` \rfer`ssf6 (dstf ä2 bè `rh Nhgdok`drf6)

Mdheoþstdnf nfg jhs` of nfok`ndg`otf hmqudrdmf ` nfg phrtdndphåîf mf Nhgdok`drf.

^DG

Mdheoþstdnf dodndhi afrghi mf Hspdrhot` nfg hpfdf mf Nk`a` m` Niî ` m` ug Nhgdok`drf ghds `xp`rd`ot` pfr `i` `snfikdmf, nfg r`nursf h mdoêgdnhs `sp`nçnhs.

Ofvdåfs2 pfm` khv`r ugh nfov`rsh `otr` Nk`a`s m` Podmhm` phrh «phsshr  t`st`guokf³.

^DG

Hm`sîf (Nhgdokf).

@i` ä don`otdvhmf h doniudr of s`u \\Q hs hnåð`s nfonr`ths phrh htdoedr fs fjb`ntdvfs qu` `snfik`, hpfdhomf-s` mf s`u Nk`a` m` Niî, ` qu` hpr`s`oth hf Niî. \\Q t`g ugh phrt` hj`rth ` ugh phrt` r`s`rvhmh.

@i` ä don`otdvhmf h doniudr of s`u \\Q hs hnåð`s nfonr`ths phrh htdoedr fs fjb`ntdvfs qu` `snfik`, hpfdhomf-s` of s`u Nk`a` m` Niî, ` qu` hpr`s`oth hf Niî

Hm`sîf (Nhgdokf).

 Hieug Fjb`ntdvf mhmf nfgf nfgf hinhoåhmf ä a`nkhmf. @snfikh ä jhs`hmh `g Fjb`ntdvfs2 : m` nhmh Èr`h. Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` ä don`otdvhmf h nfonr`tdzhr fs Fjb`ntdvfs qu` vîf s`r trhjhikhmfs nfg hnåð`s prètdnhs (fpfrtuodmhm`s), qu` dos`r` of s`u \\Q. \\Q t`g ugh phrt` hj`rth ` ugh phrt` r`s`rvhmh.

OÎF

\`if g`ofs  : fjb`ntdvfs m` nhmh Èr`h6

^DG

OÎF

= fjb`ntdvfs m` nhmh Èr`h6

8ª @thph [email protected]

:ª @thph ^@ZQDÅF

Of ohi mh prdg`drh @thph (nhsf s` hpidhpidqu`), ä s`gpr` pfssçv`i qu` s` nfoniuh qu`, oh `snfikh mfs ofvfs 8:-8; Fjb`ntdvfs, f Nhgdok`drf bè fs nfoniuçu ` qu` pfr dssf m`v`rè trhosdthr phrh h t`rn`drh @thph.

\`if g`ofs

^DG >ª @thph \HZ]DMH O`sth òitdgh @thph, f Nhgdok`drf nfotdouh h suh \rfer`ssîf  ` dodndh f m`shf.

8=8

@qudph m`

AHGÇIDH

Hodghåîf

... HGDEF^

Nhgdok`drf ghds v`ikf

[email protected] @^NP]@DZF^ OHGFZF

FP]ZH^ HN][email protected]^

@^NFIH / ]ZHJHIKF

:.:. @thph Nhgdokf

Xuhomf nk`ehg hf Niî, fs Ofvdåfs ` Hspdrhot`s dodndhg h @thph Nhgdokf (Hm`sîf) ` r`n`j`g h r`sp`ntdvh dosçeodh. Murhot` `sth ahs` m` Dot`erhåîf, nhmh Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` drè vdv`r h `xp`rdâondh mf Niî m` afrgh gudtf p`ssfhi, p`if qu` h hmhpthåîf h ofvhs p`ssfhs ` h ofvhs mdoêgdnhs pfm`g r`suithr `g rdtgfs gudtf mda`r`ot`s, qu` m`v`g s`r r`sp`dthmfs. F fjb`ntdvf mh Hm`sîf ä f m` vhifrdzhr h tfghmh m` nfosndâondh domdvdmuhi mf Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` sfjr` nfgf auondfoh f Niî, nfgf s` vdv` f mdh-h-mdh mhs hntdvdmhm`s tçpdnhs, quhi ä h Gçstdnh, h ^dgjfifedh, f \htrfof ` quhds sîf fs nfgprfgdssfs qu` s` `sp`rhg m` ug Nhgdok`drf. Ä nfg jhs` o`ssh tfghmh m` nfosndâondh domdvdmuhi qu` nhmh Ofvdåf/  Hspdrhot` tfgh, pfr sd, h m`ndsîf m` hm`rdr hf Niî, fu s`bh, m` ahz`r h suh \rfg`ssh.

8=:

Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` m`v` s`r a`dth of Nfos`ikf m` Nk`a`s m` @qudph, qu` m`ndm` s` f Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` r`òo` hs nfomdåð`s phrtdnuihr`s m`  Hm`sîf, hndgh m`snrdths, ofg`hmhg`ot` of qu` tfnh ì vdvâondh oh @qudph, of Niî ` oh Nhgdokhmh. \hrh hiäg mdstf, f Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` sþ ahz h suh \rfg`ssh s` f Niî thgjäg vhidmhr qu` `stè pr`phrhmf, nfg jhs` `g prfpfsth mfs Eudhs of Nfos`ikf m` Niî.  H \rfg`ssh m`v` s`r vhifrdzhmh `oquhotf gfg`otf ghrnhot` mf prfn`ssf m` Hm`sîf. \fr dssf, m`v` s`r s`gpr` hutf-prfpfsth p`if  bfv`g, m`v` phrtdr m` ugh fpåîf domdvdmuhidzhmh ` oîf r`suithot` m` mhth(s) ghrnhmhs ’hmgdodstrhtdvhg`ot`‗. Hpþs h Qhidmhåîf mf Niî, f nfgprfgdssf p`ssfhi m`v` s`r ghrnhmf murhot` fs : g`s`s s`eudot`s. Fs Ofvdåfs/Hspdrhot`s pfm`g hssugdr f s`u nfgprfgdssf `g nfobuotf, heruphmfs m` hnfrmf nfg f t`gpf mh suh tfghmh m` m`ndsîf ` vhidmhåîf mf Niî. \[email protected]^^H Nfos`ikf m` Niî Qhidmh

Nfos`ikf m` Nk`a`s m` @qudph Qhidmh

Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` hutf-prfpð`-s` phrh ahz`r \rfg`ssh

Nfos`ikf m` Niî Oîf Qhidmh

Nfos`ikf m` Nk`a`s m` @qudph Oîf Qhidmh

M`v` s`r `xpidnhmf hf Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` pfrqu` ä qu` oîf afd vhidmhmh h suh prfpfsth p`if Nfos`ikf m` Nk`a`s m` @qudph ` m`s`ovfiv`r-s` ug `safråf nfo buotf phrh f hbumhr h hinhoåhr f qu` ik` ahith phrh pfm`r ahz`r h suh \rfg`ssh.

M`v` s`r `xpidnhmf hf Ofvdåf/Hspdrhot` pfrqu` ä qu` oîf afd vhidmhmh h suh prfpfsth p`if Nfos`ikf m` Niî ` m`s`ovfiv`r-s` ug `safråf nfobuotf phrh f hbumhr h hinhoåhr f qu` ik` ahith phrh pfm`r ahz`r h suh \rfg`ssh.

8=0

^`rvdr ä tfrohr-s` hptf phrh h gdssîf

 H vdvâondh mf ^`rvdåf m`v` s`r `xp`rdg`othmh domdvdmuhig`ot`, oh @qudph ` of Niî, `g hnåð`s m` ifoef t`rgf qu` m`oft`g ugh vfothm` m` nfgprfgdssf ` oîf hp`ohs ’gdod-s`rvdåfs‗ rèpdmfs, s`g nfotdoudmhm` ` gudths v`z`s s`g s`otdmf. >ª @thph - \hrtdmh

@sth ä h @thph `g qu` f Nhgdok`drf s` hssug` nfgf ug `x`gpif phrh fs futrfs. @stè nhmh v`z ghds prþxdgh h shçmh mf Niî ` hs ht`oåð`s mf Nhgdok`drf m`v`g vfithr-s`, nhmh v`z ghds, phrh afrh mf Niî2 ä hiturh m` s` tfrohr nhmh v`z ghds hntdvf of guomf.  Hssdg s`omf, `sth ä ugh @thph `g qu` f Nhgdok`drf vdv` of Niî ` phrh f Niî, ghs qu` nhmh v`z ghds m`v` vdv`r phrh fs futrfs, phrh afrh mf Niî ` mh prþprdh [email protected], m` afrgh h qu` pfssh mdz`r nfg v`rmhm` qu` nhgdokh phrh f Kfg`g-Ofvf ` qu` f s`u `x`gpif ä `x`gpif h s`eudr. \hrh hiäg mdstf, `sth ä h @thph `g qu` s` m`v` pr`phrhr, ghds dot`osdvhg`ot`, phrh r`n`j`r h N`rdgþodh mh \hrtdmh. Ä, thgjäg, fom` ä nfovdmhmf h ahz`r f s`u M`shf. \HZ]DMH (Furf)

[email protected]

^@ZQDÅF

(Jrfoz`)

(\rhth)

NHGDOKF Hm`sîf afrghi Hm`sîf afrghi

8=;

j) Nfgf s` m`s`orfih f \rfer`ssf  H prfpfsth m` \rfer`ssf hss`oth `g Nfok`ndg`otfs, Nfgp`tâondhs ` Htdtum`s Htdtum`s (NNH), nfg jhs` ohs > v`rt`ot`s mf shj`r2 f shj`r ^hj`r, f shj`r Ahz`r ` f shj`r ^`r.

[email protected]@O]F^ NFG\@]ÂONDH^ H]D][email protected]^

shj`r ^hj`r  shj`r Ahz`r  shj`r ^`r 

Of nhsf mh [email protected], pr`t`om`-s` qu` h mdoêgdnh m` \rfer`ssf `ovfivh fs Fjb`ntdvfs m`odmfs phrh nhmh ugh mhs Èr`hs m` M`s`ovfivd g`otf. \rfer`mdr sdeodnhrè, hssdg, htdoedr fjb`ntdvfs.

Nfgf s` prfn`ssh h \rfer`ssîf \rfer`ssîf6 6 @xdst`g 1 Èr`hs m` M`s`ovfivdg`otf2 AÇ^DNF, [email protected]]DQF, NHZÈN]@Z, @^\DZD]PHI, DO]@[email protected]]PHI, ^FNDHI Nhmh ugh m`sths Èr`hs m` M`s`ovfivdg`otf t`g `otr` 1 h ; fjb`ntdvfs.

AÇ^DNF

1 fjb`ntdvfs

[email protected]]DQF

1 fjb`ntdvfs

NHZÈN]@Z

; fjb`ntdvfs

@^\DZD]PHI

; fjb`ntdvfs

DO]@[email protected]]PHI

5 fjb`ntdvfs

^FNDHI

5 fjb`ntdvfs

8=4

@x`gpif mh Nihrh, qu` `stè h t`othr t`rgdohr h @thph Nfguodmhm`2

Dghedo`-s` qu` h Nihrh t`g htdoedmfs 0 Fjb`ntdvfs mh Èr`h m` M`s`ovfivdg`otf açsdnf, : mh èr`h dot`i`ntuhi ` > mh Èr`h ^fndhi (ghrnhmf nfg ‛[—). \hrh a`nkhr h @thph 8 „ Nfguodmhm` - t`g hdomh m` hinhoåhr : Fjb`ntdvfs (p`if g`ofs) m` nhmh ugh mhs futrhs > èr`hs r`sthot`s. (ghrnhmf nfg ‛F—, f qu` `ih `snfik`u htdoedr, phrh nfgpi`thr h @thph). 









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





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

Nhsf t`okh, p`if g`ofs, 8: Fjb`ntdvfs hinhoåhmfs (p`if g`ofs : `g nhmh  Èr`h  Èr `h m` M`s`o M`s`ovfi vfivdg vdg`ot `otf), f), phss phssh h phrh phrh h :ª @thph @thph „ ^`rvdåf „ ` `snfik` p`if g`ofs ghds 8: Fjb`ntdvfs (p`if g`ofs : m` nhmh Èr`h m` M`s`ovfivdg`otf) phrh nfgpi`thr `sth :ª @thph.



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





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

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









 











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











Ghrnhmfs nfg [ fs Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs hinhoåhmfs p`ih Nihrh oh 8ª @thph  „ Nfg Nfguod uodmhm mhm`. `. H suj sujido idokhm khmf, f, fs Fjb Fjb`nt `ntdvf dvfss @mu @munht nhtdvf dvfss h qu` h Nih Nihrh rh s` prf prfpð` pð` h htdoedr oh :ª @thph - ^`rvdåf.

80:

n) Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs 8) Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs ` f hinhon` m` Fjb`ntdvfs @m -

unhtdvfs Fs Nfok`ndg`otfs, Nfgp`tâondhs ` Htdtum`s (NNH) sîf trhjhikhmfs of s`df mf Niî ` mh @qudph of m`s`orfihr mf mdh-h-mdh ` mhs ahs`s mh vdvâondh mhs Nhgdokhmhs. O`st` êgjdtf, tumf f qu` fs Nhgdok`drfs ahz`g m`otrf ` afrh mf gfvdg`otf hbumh-fs h hinhoåhr fs Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs ohds, fu s`bh, h nr`sn`r ohs 1 Èr`hs m` M`s`ovfivdg`o tf p`ssfhi. Hssdg s`omf, fs Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs qu` hpr`s`othgfs hfs bfv`os o`sth dmhm` oîf sîf ghds mf qu` prfpfsths htrhntdvhs qu` fs m`shhg h s`r ghds ` g`ikfr . Of ofssf ^dst`gh m` \rfer`ssf ahz s`otdmf mdz`r-s` qu` ’f Nhgdok`drf m`u prfvhs m`‗ (pfrqu` dssf afd fjs`rvhmf `g Nfok`ndg`otfs, Nfgp`tâondhs ` Htdtum`s (NNH)) `g v`z m` ’f Nhgdok`drf pr`stfu prfpr fvhs‗ (pfrqu` r`hidzfu ugh m`t`rgdohmh hnåîf pr`vdsth oug ^dst`gh m` \rfer`ssf nfg prfvhs `sp`ndnhmhs). O`st` s`otdmf, f \rfer`ssf oîf s` ahz htrhväs m` prfvhs `sp`nçnhs ` dmâotdnhs (fjrdehtþrdhs fu ahnuiahnui thtdvhs, fpndfohds fu m` quhiqu`r futrh frm`g) phrh tfmfs, ghs htrhväs m` Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs „ hntdvdmhm`s ` hnåð`s „ qu` f ofssf gätfmf, nfg hs suhs 5 ghrhvdikhs, fa`r`n`. Fs Nhgdok`drfs pfm`g hdomh hmqudrdr Nfok`ndg`otfs, Nfgp`tâondhs ` Htdtum`s (NNH) oh suh vdvâondh `snfihr, nht`quätdnh, ofs niuj`s h qu` p`rt`oåhg, `qudphs m` futrfs frehodsgfs, `tn., mhmf qu` thgjäg hqud r`hidzhg hntdvdmhm`s qu` pfm`g nfotrdjudr phrh hinhoåhr`g Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs. H dm`dh ä f Nk`a` m` Niî v`rdnhr `ss`s Nfok`ndg`otfs, Nfgp`tâondhs ` Htdtum`s (NNH), s`g qu` f Nhgdok`drf t`okh qu` fs r`p`tdr, o`n`sshrdhg`ot`.  Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs p`rgdt`g qu` nhmh bfv`g vdvh `xp`rdâondhs `ordqu`n`mfrhs qu` i`vhg hf M`s`ovfivdg`otf \`ssfhi. ^îf `ihs, hssdg, qu` nfotrdju`g phrh s` hinhoåhr fs Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs m` ugh afrgh domdr`nth ` prfer`ssdvh. Hssdg s`omf, h nhmh Fjb`ntdvf @munhtdvf m`v`g s`r hssfndhmhs hieughs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs, nfgf g`rhs sue`stð`s, qu` pfm`g s`r hmhpthmhs ` ’o`efndhmhs‗ nfg fs Nhgdok`drfs. Nfg dstf, d stf, pr`t`om`-s` nrdhr nfomdåð`s phrh hnfik`r ofvhs prfpfsths ` sue`stð`s m` Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs, pft`ondhomf m`sth afrgh h phrtdndphåîf mfs bfv`os of prfn`ssf.

800

Oft`-s` qu`, h `st` oçv`i, oîf `xdst` ugh r`ihåîf mdr`nth `otr` h r`hidzhåîf m` ugh fpfrtuodmhm` ` f hinhoåhr m` ug Fjb`ntd vf @munhtdvf. @munhtdvf. Ä htrhväs mh hvhidhåîf mf m`s`ovfivdg`otf mf bfv`g  „ ` oîf mh r`hidzhåîf fu oîf mh Fpfrtuodmhm` @munhtdvh „ qu` s` pfm` nfgprfvhr h hqudsdåîf m` ofvfs nfok`ndg`otfs, nfgp`tâondhs fu htdtum`s. ^` `sth hqudsdåîf oîf s` v`rdnhr fu oîf afr shtdsahtþrdh, pfm`rè s`r o`n`ssèrdf `snfik`r ofvhs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs phrh f Nhgdok`drf.

:) Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs ` f \\Q

F \\Q m`v`rè t`r ugh phrt` hj`rth, qu` m`v` nfot`r fs Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs qu` f Nhgdok`drf qu` `snfik`u phrh htdoedr oh @thph mf ^dst`gh m` \rfer`ssf `g qu` s` `onfotrh, hssdg nfgf hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs (hnåð`s nfonr`ths) phrh fs hinhoåhr ` r`sp`ntdvhs mhths `g qu` pr`vâ tâ-ifs htdoedmf. @ssh phrt` ä phrtdikhmh nfg h @qudph ` nfg f Nk`a` m` Niî ` m`v` `sthr `xpfsth oh Jhs` (fu ^`m`).  H dgpfrtêondh mh phrtdikh ` `xpfsdåîf mfs Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs `snfikdmfs pfr nhmh ug, pr`om`-s` nfg h pfssdjdidmhm` mh @qudph m`  Hodghåîf ` tfmf tfmf f Niî pfm`r`g ` m`v`r`g m`v`r`g don`otdvhr h hbumhr fs s`us `i`g`otfs h prfer`mdr prfer`mdr..

@x`gpif \\Q \hrt` Hj`rth2 Fjb`ntdvf @munhtdvf ohi2   ’Nuitdvhr ug `stdif m` vdmh shumèv`i `

`qudidjrhmf „ hidg`othåîf, hntdvdmhm` açsdnh ` r`pfusf „ hmhpthmf h nhmh ahs` mf s`u m`s`ovfivdg`otf‗.

Nfonr`tdzhåîf m`st` Fjb`ntdvf2 8. F qu` sdeodnh `st` Fjb`ntdvf phrh f Bfv`g6 :. Hnåð`s nfonr`ths qu` hbumhg h htdoedr f Fjb`ntdvf (\fr `x`gpif2 prhtdnhr m`spfrtf açsdnf 8 v`z pfr s`ghoh3 ahz`r 0 r`a`dåð`s pfr mdh, vhrdhmhs ` outrdtdvhs3 mfrgdr, p`if g`ofs, 5 kfrhs mdèrdhs..).

801

[email protected][F 8 \rfb`ntf \`ssfhi m` Qdmh (\\Q)

Ghs hohi f qu` ä f \\Q6

\hrh nfg`åhr, ä ug nfovdt` h phrhr ` h ahz`r ugh hoèids` nudmhmh m` tumf hqudif qu` nfostdtud h suh vdmh2 h ahgçidh, fs hgdefs, h `snfih, f `gpr`ef, f ohgfrf, h suh r`ihåîf nfosdef g`sgf, nfg M`us ` nfg fs futrfs… `og2 tumf! M`pfds m`sth hoèids`, nfovdmh-s` f Nhgdok`drf h p`ehr ough nho`th ` of s`u Ghouhi mf Nhgdokf fu ough afikh m` php`i ` qu` nfg`n` h ‛`oshdhr— trhåhomf fjb`ntdvfs phrh h suh vdmh… pfm` trhåhr p`qu`ohs g`ths, prfb`ntfs h ifoef prhzf ` erhom`s sfokfs… Hs nfdshs erhom`s vîf-s` fp`rhomf ohs p`qu`ohs, pfr dssf, s` `i` nfos`eudr dr nugprdomf hs p`qu`ohs g`ths h qu` s` prfpýs, `sthrè nhmh v`z ghds p`rtf mf erhom` sfokf. F \\Q ä sfjr`tumf ugh a`rrhg`oth, phrh f hbumhr h m`odr f s`u nhgdokf phrh h A`idndmhm` „ ough hprfxdghåîf mdèrdh hf dm`hi mf Kfg`g- Ofvf! Nfgf auondfoh oh prètdnh6

Xuhomf `snr`v`r f s`u \\Q m`v`-s` t`r `g nfoth qu` `i` s`rè nfostdtuçmf nfostd tuçmf pfr muhs phrt`s2 Pgh phrt` hj`rth, fom` m`v`rîf `sthr j`g vdsçv`ds fs fjb`ntdvfs `munhtdvfs h qu` s` prfpð`, hssdg nfgf hs hnåð`s nfonr`ths qu` vhd r`hidzhr phrh fs nugprdr. @sth phrt` s`rè phrtdikhmh nfg f Nk`a` m` Niî ` f r`sthot` Niî, ugh v`z qu` pfm`rîf `xdstdr fjb`ntdvfs nfguos nfg futrfs Nhgdok`drfs, oh g`sgh ahs` m` nhgdokhmh „ tfrohomf-fs h tfmfs sdguitho`hg`ot` ‛hntfr`s— ` ‛fjs`rvhmfr`s— „ ` hssdg ghds r`spfosèv`ds uos p`ifs futrfs m`otrf mf Niî3 f nfobuotf m` tfmfs fs \\Q—s mfs Nhgdok`drfs s`rvdrè m` jhs` ì NHZ]H [email protected] NIÎ , pr`ndshg`ot` pfr `oquhmrhr ugh vdvâondh pfsth `g nfgug3

81=

F \\Q - hieuos `x`gpifs ’\fr nhgdokf oîf qu`rf sdeodnhr ug nhgdokhr hf hnhsf, s`g ohidmhm`, ghs hot`s ug trhb`ntf herhmèv`i nfg ug fjb`ntdvf m`odmf, hf g`sgf t`gpf qu` kè h nfosndâondh mhs mdnuimhm`s ` p`rdefs qu` pfm`g m`phrhr-s` of p`rnursf.‗ 

Jhm`o \fw`ii

Pg \\Q ^þ pfr `sth s`ghoh k`d-m` ahz`r tumf f qu` pfssf ahz`r phrh mhr a` idndmhm` hfs futrfs3 ^þ pfr `sth s`ghoh vfu `sthr ht`otf phrh v`r, v`r, oh `snfih, of trhjhikf, `g nhsh, qu`g `sp`rh h gdokh jfh mdspfsdåîf ` hbumh3^þ pfr `sth s`ghoh ahr`d vèrdfs e`stfs m` hgfr ` oîf fs nfothr`d h odoeuäg3 ^þ pfr `sth s`ghoh, oîf g` vfu hjfrr`n`r nfg fs hr`s «dgpfrthot`s³ mfs ghds v`ikfs, o`g nfg hs jrdonhm`drhs mhs nrdhoåhs. Qfu hidokhr ug pfunf nfg f qu` `onfotrhr3 ^þ pfr `sth s`ghoh, vfu t`r f gèxdgf nudmhmf of nfovçvdf nfg fs futrfs, s`r sdgpètdnf nfg nhmh ug, h odoeuäg nrdtdnhr, o`g vfu mhr ghds dgpfrtêondh hfs g`us m`s`bfs qu` hfs mfs futrfs3 ^þ pfr `sth s`ghoh, vfu ahz`r tumf f qu` `stè oh gdokh gîf phrh mhr hi`erdh ìs p`ssfhs qu` `onfotrhr murhot` fs mdhs tfmfs mh s`ghoh3 @ mdef hssdg pfrqu` ä ghds aèndi p`oshr nhmh Mfgdoef of `safråf qu` vfu ahz`r «sþ pfr `sth s`ghoh³ mf qu` `g 0: s`ghohs v`z`s tfmfs fs hofs qu` `u vdv`[email protected] hefrh6 ^`rè qu` hdomh t`gfs hieugh nfdsh h v`r nfg dstf6 Futrh pfssdjdidmhm` F \rfb`ntf \`ssfhi m` Qdmh dgpidnh frehodzhr h gdokh vdmh, r`afr guihr f g`u auturf. Nrdhr ug prfb`ntf prf b`ntf m` vhifr`s, prdonçpdfs ` sfokfs h nugprdr nugprdr..

Nfgprfg`tf-g` hssdg, hot`s m` ghds, h gumhr, gumhr, h r`ohsn`r rugf hfs nhgdokfs mf Kfg`g Ofvf.

815

[email protected][F >

[email protected]ÅÎF

[email protected]

Nhtfidndsgf

F \hph ä h hutfrdmhm` gèxdgh.

Jhptdsgf, @unhrdstdh, \`odtâondh, Nrdsgh, Nhshg`otf, Frm`g ` ^hoth Poåîf

Iut`rhodsgf

M`sn`otrhidzhmh

Jhptdsgf ` @unhrdstdh

Hoeidnhodsgf

F Hrn`jdspf mh Nhotuèrdh ä f sçgjfif m` uodmhm` guomdhi, pfräg nhmh prfvçoHoefih2 ndh ohndfohi ä pi`ohg`ot` (Der`bh Podmh) dom`p`om`ot` ` kè ugh jfh mdvdsîf m` pfm`r phrh nfg hs mdfn`s`s. M`sn`otrhidzhmh Der`bh Jhptdsth

^[email protected]]F^

Jhptdsgf ` @unhrdstdh. \fräg hn`dthg fs futrfs 0 nfgf rdtfs shnrhg`othds fu shnrhg`otfs g`ofr`s (p`odtâondh, nhshg`otf, nrdsgh(nforghåîf), frm`os ` Poåîf mfs @oa`rgfs) Oîf kè shnrhg`otfs, Jhptdsgf (vfiuotèrdf) ` N`dh mf ^`okfr (nfgf g`gfrdhi) nfgf rdtfs nfguodtèrdfs

G`tfmdsgf

M`sn`otrhidzhmh

Jhptdsgf ` `unhrdstdh.

Der`bh Hmv`otdsth

F pr`sdm`ot` mh Hssfndhåîf E`rhi mfs Hmv`otdsths mf ^ätdgf Mdh ä h hutfrdmhm` gèxdgh, ` ä `snfikdmf pfr vftf. M`sn`otrhidzhmh, afrghomf vèrdhs der`bhs

Jhptdsgf, ^hoth N`dh ` Ihvh-päs

mf ^ätdgf

Mdh \`ot`nfsthidsgf

85<

Jhptdsgf ` nfoer`ehåîf

Nfgphrhåîf `otr` hs \ZDOND\HD^ [email protected]ÅÐ@^ [email protected]ÅÐ @^ NZD^]Î^ pr`s`ot`s `g Hoefih ^HIQHÅÎF \`ih aä ` p`ihs fjrhs

\`ih Aä

\`ih aä, sfg`ot`

\`if hrr`p`omdg`otf ` nfotrdåîf

@^NZD]PZH^ Jçjidh, doniudomf idvrfs m`ut`rfnhoýodnfs

Ptdidzh f ihtdg nfgf içoeuh idturednh ff ndhi, ghs hs gdsshs pfm`g s`r n`i`jrhmhs `g futrfs dmdfghs Jdjidh, doniudomf hp`ohs  H Jçjidh pfm` s`r idvrfs prftfnhoýodnfs idvr`g`ot` dot`rpr`thmh Jçjidh, hn`dthomf fs Oîf kè o`okugh idvrfs m`ut`rfnhoýodiçoeuh idtòrednh nfs nfg r`strdåð`s fndhi. (`sp`ndhig`ot` `otr` fs s`tfr`s ghds prft`sthot`s). Jdjidh, nfg âoahs` of ofvf t`sthg`otf

Z`hidzhmh `g trâs phssfs2 Jçjidh. Erhåh \r`vdod`ot`, Nfov`rsîf ` ^hotdnhåîf \`ih Aä Jçjidh

\`ih aä

\HZ][email protected]^

Jçjidh, nfg `xniusîf mfs idvrfs m`ut`rfnhoý m`ut`rfnhoýodnfs odnfs

 H Jçjidh pfm` s`r idvr`g`ot` dot`rpr`thmh. \r`eh h s`phrhåîf `otr` der`bh ` `sthmf.

^hotdnhg f ^èjh^èjh mf pfr dssf ^ätdgf Mdh

]`g nfgf pfotf-nkhv` f ’jhptdsgf of `spçrdtf shotf‗ ` h eifssfihidh

858

JDJIDFEZHADH [email protected]\[email protected], Z. ^. ^., Huxdidhr mf Nk`a` @snuth, @mdåð`s [email protected] [email protected]\[email protected], Z. ^. ^., H Nhgdokf mf ]rduoaf, @mdåð`s [email protected] N`i`jrhåð`s mf [email protected], @mdåð`s [email protected] MPGHD^, Ghrn`i, ^`rgîf mh Gfothokh. Idsjfh2 Mdausfrh Jçjidnh, 8444. [email protected]^][email protected], G. M., \`ih @munhåîf ì Idj`rmhm`, @mdåð`s [email protected] Gçstdnh ` ^dgjfifedh mf [email protected], @mdåð`s [email protected] OFZGHOM, B`ho-\d`rr`, H I`d mf @snuth „ ugh afot` vdvh, @mdåð`s [email protected] F Zhstf mf Auomhmfr, @mdåð`s [email protected] F\[email protected], Arhoc, @snut`drf Eifjhi2 Pg @snutdsgf phrh h Ohtur`zh ` Hgjd`ot`. @mdåð`s [email protected], :8 N. NFGF DG\[email protected]@O]HZ6 GHZHQDIKH^ MF GÄ]FMF ........................................ >0 N.4 N.8. H vdvâondh of Niî ......................................... D. Qdv`r h I`d ` h \rfg`ssh ........................................ ......................................................... ................. 0; DD. Qdv`r h Frhåîf mf @snuth ....................................................... ....................................................... 18 Frhåîf mf Nhgdok`drf ................................................... ................................................... 1:

N.: GÇ^]DNH @ ^DGJFIFEDH N.:. N.:.= GÇ^]DNH @ ^DGJFIFEDH OF NIÎ ............................................ D. Gçstdnh mfs Nhgdok`drfs N hgdok`drfs «H vdmh of Kfg`g Ofvf³ ................. 5> ^dgjfifedh mfs Nhgdok`drfs .......................................... 54 Fs sçgjfifs .............................................. ................................................................... ..................... ;8 H idoeuhe`g sdgjþidnh .................................................... .................................................... ;= DD. N`rdgfodhds ........................................ ............................................................................ .................................... ;0 Frhåîf mf Nhgdok`drf qu` phrt` ................................... ;5 [email protected]]F .......................................................................... .......................................................................... ;;

N.> - QDMH QDM H OH OH][email protected] OH][email protected] \@M HEÞEDNF MF NFO] NFO ]HN]F NFG H OH][email protected] OH][email protected] .. 48 N.>. n) Pg t`gpif .......................................... .............................................................................. .................................... 4= OH][email protected] OF NIÎ …............................................ 41 N.>.= H QDMH OH OH][email protected]  H Ohtur`zh nfgf ug ihjfrhtþrdf2 h nfosndâondh hgjd`othi hgjd`othi ........ 41  H Ohtur`zh nfgf ug niuj`2 arht`rodmhm` ` fpfrtuodmhm` m` nr`sndg`otf ...... 4;  H Ohtur`zh nfgf ug t`gpif2 h vdvâondh `spdrdtuhi …................ 8. F Nfgprfgdssf - \rfg`ssh ....................... 8== DD. H QDQÂONDH .......................….................... .......................….................................................. .............................. 8=1 h) Ofg`s ` sdeodnhmf mhs @thphs m` \rfer`ssf ............. 8=1 8) Hm`sîf - Nhgdokf ......................................... .................................................. ......... 8=1 :) 8ª @thph - Nfguodmhm` …....................................... 8=5 >) :ª @thph - ^`rvdåf ......................................... .................................................. ......... 8=5 =) >ª @thph - \hrtdmh ................................................... ................................................... 8=; j) Nfgf s` m`s`orfih f \rfer`ssf ........................................ 8=4

855

n) Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs …........................................ … ........................................ 800 8) Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs ` f hinhon` m` Fjb`ntdvfs @munhtdvfs ............ 800 :) Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs ` f \\Q ................... 801 >) Hs Fpfrtuodmhm`s @munhtdvhs ` hs @sp`ndhidmhm`s. 805 =) Hvhidhåîf m` Nfok`ndg`otfs, Nfgp`tâondhs ` Htdtum`s .................... 805 m) F M`shf ................................................... ......................................................................... ...................... 804 `) H N`rdgþodh mh \hrtdmh ........................................ ...................................................… ...........… 81<

[email protected][F^ [email protected][F 8 Nfgphrhåîf `otr` hs prdondphds [email protected]^ NZD^]Î^ pr`s`ot`s `g Hoefih Hoefih ........... 81= JDJIDFEZHADH ......................................................................... ......................................................................... 815 DOMÇ[email protected] ....................................................................................... ....................................................................................... 814

85;

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854

Hssfndhåîf m` @snut`drfs m` Hoefih

8;<

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